(This article was produced with support from Rain Forest Journalism Fund in partnership with Pulitzer Centre)
LIMBE, Cameroon (PAMACC News) – Renewable energy powered ovens introduced in some fishing communities along the coastal regions of Limbe and Douala in Cameroon, are helping the country redress the challenges of dwindling mangrove forests , mitigate the effects of climate change and fight poverty.
Local councils, NGOs and other stakeholders are backing government’s efforts to protect mangroves with the use of alternative energy other than fuel wood for cooking and drying fish by the local communities.
In the coastal towns of Batoke, Idenau fish traders are doing brisk business thanks to the installation of solar-powered ovens to dry fish, preventing what used to be massive destruction swathes of mangrove forest for firewood and spoilage from a lack of other preservation methods.
Fish smokers in these communities say the renewable energy project has improved on their awareness and knowledge about mangrove protection.
“We have come to learn about this new method that permits us dry our fish without much stress with the use of solar ovens and protect our forest,” says Joan Dione, a fish smoker in Idenau whose business is driven by customers from big cities in Cameroon and neighbouring Nigeria and Gabon.
The renewable energy powered ovens provided for fish drying to replace wood along the coastal villages of Batoke, Idenau, Down Beach in Limbe is a mangrove restoration programme supported by the Cameroon government, the Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society, CWCS, Cameroon Mangrove and Wetlands Conservation Network and the World Wide Fund for Nature,WWF geared at giving life to not only the populace of the local community, but also assure the environmental future of generations not yet born, conservation experts say.
“The alternative energy has gone a long way to not only protect existing mangrove forest and restoring the rich biodiversity of the coastal areas but also improve the livelihood of the community through quality and quantity fish catch” says Timothy Kagonbe, sub-director in charge of local partnership in the ministry of environment and Cameroon focal point in the Inter Governmental Group of Experts on Climate Change.
In 2018, Some 25 fishing groups in Idenau and nearby Batoke in the coastal region of Limbe were also offered solar energy fish drying ovens in by the African Resource Group Cameroon, ARG-CAM working in collaboration with the Limbe city council as part of a wider drive to expand renewable energy like solar across the country.
The women attest the alternative fish drying methods have really improved on their income.
Joan Dione’s daughter Sharon Dione, 23, says in the past, drying a significant quantity of fish of 25 baskets in a day using wood was impossible.
“The process of using wood energy was so difficult, emitting smoke that was dangerous to our health and limited our production ,” says Sharon Dione.
“The arrival of solar energy and solar drying ovens here has changed everything,” she adds.
The Limbe City Mayor, Paul Efome Lisombe Mbole says the coming of alternative energy for fish drying and cooking is a welcome relief to the development drive and environment protection efforts to the coastal city that is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
“The coming of alternative and cheaper energy to our council area is a welcome relief. The project was born out of the need to improve the livelihoods of the people, conserve , protect mangroves and fight against climate change. We are moving to a new world now,” Paul Efome said said.
The Limbe City Council district is a coastal area beset with numerous challenges related to climate change and environmental degradation.
“Given the fragile nature of its ecosystem, it is imperative that all our activities, economic or otherwise, are carried out in a sustainable manner,” the mayor explained.
The same efforts have been carried out in the coastal and industrial city of Douala. At Youpwe, a popular fish market in Douala, Cameroons economic capital, the women are always busy smoking of fish. They have been using eco-friendly charcoal to smoke fish.
"It came to us like a surprise that what is considered waste can be used to produce charcoal to dry fish", Ngonno Lizette 42 years old noted.
Another fish smoker in Youpwe, Marie Louis Kuetche, says their overdependence on mangrove to smoke fish was already having a counter effect on their business . « For several years we depended solely on mangrove wood to dry fish. But later we began realizing fish was becoming scarce and from what we gathered this was as a result of the uncontrolled destruction of mangroves, » she explained.
« This new form of charcoal from waste material is very clean and fish dried from it looks bright and sells better in the market" Kuetche added.
The phenomenon is already gaining grounds in different fishing communities as locals strive to protect their mangroves.
In Mouanko in the Sanaga Maritime division of the Littoral Region, women are also switching to these eco-friendly forms of charcoal.
In a bid to also curb the pressure on fishing, a local NGO, Mounako Horrizon 2000 is helping locals diversify their income by involving them in agriculture as alternative source of income.
Same Diyouke, President of the NGO explained how the drive for environmental sustainability led to the birth of converting trash to manure for agriculture. « We are happy this is turning the tides as many of the fish business women are also taking interest in agriculture activities » he says.
For long we watched how our mangroves were being depleted to dry fish, we also saw those who did agriculture practice slash and burn, destroying the ecosystem.
« It was the zeal to curb these unsustainable activities that we started transforming waste to organic fertilizer. Today for the first time rice is cultivated in Mouanko with the use of the compost manure we produced," he added.
Reports show that about 30% of Cameroonians living along the coastal areas of Limbe and Doaual depend on mangrove resources for their livelihoods, particularly fish, timber and non-timber forest products.
Government statistics estimate about 1% of mangroves loss every year. The situation is even higher in the mangrove forests of the Wouri estuary in the industrial city of Douala with some 6.2% destruction rate per year.
Environment experts blame this on multiple factors like surging coastal population, urbanization, fish processing, sand extraction and uncoordinated government and weak laws that not always applied.
“ The government needs to apply its laws by effectively sanctioning defaulters” says Samuel Nguiffo, CEO of the Centre for Environment and Development, an NGO the fights for the rights of forest indigenous communities in Cameroon.
Cameroon’s minister of environment and nature protection, Hele Pierre noted during the launching of tree planting along the coastal area of Limbe,June 12, 2022, that protecting the country’s mangroves was part of government’s efforts to drive forest conservation in the species-rich Congo Basin, home to the world’s second-largest tropical rainforest.
“By restoring disappearing trees along the coast, we are helping local communities develop sustainably, fight poverty, increase their resilience to climate change and contribute to climate change mitigation,” Pierre said.
Tree planting along the Limbe ,Wouri and Kribi Coast is a yearly mangrove restoration programme by government supported by other stakeholders and especiallt the active participation of the local communities.
“ The yearly mangrove restoration efforts is a community affair because the villagers know their future lies in the coastline mangrove,” says Theophilus Ngwene, Programme Executant WWF Coastal Forest programme.
Humped over the soil, villagers and fishermen alike in Limbe, Mouanko and other fishing community along the coast say they have been working feverishly planting stalks of mangrove to replace the swathes destroyed by the population for firewood and building material as well as development projects
Fisherman Ongene Auswald says he has not missed a single mangrove planting session since the last three years. He says the mangrove restoration efforts is already paying off with improved fish catch.
“Since we started caring for the mangroves, we harvest more and more fish,” he says.
“Now, fishermen from as far off as Kribi come to fish on our shores,” Ongene adds.
Fishing has always been the way of life for the people of Mouanko one of the villages off the shores of Wouri river in Cameroon’s economic capital.
Ebounge Ralph 68, chairman of the village fishing community recalled the days of his childhood when fishers used traditional fishing method to make good catch just few meters away from the village.
“But fishing soon become perilous following vast destruction of the Wouri coastline rich mangrove forest” Ebonge reveals.
Environment expert have saluted the conservation efforts especially as it is geared towards reducing poverty and the degradation rates of Cameroon’s coastal mangroves, thereby contributing to strengthening the role of the country’s ecosystem in disaster risk reduction.
‘’ The role of ecosystems in disaster risk management especially in the coastal area cannot be ignored. Ecosystems with strong tree cover reduce the vulnerability of the coastline to floods. Mangroves especially acts as buffers that help to reduce the risk of erosion and inundation,’’ says Timothy Kagonbe.
Experts say Mangrove forests absorb three to four times more carbon than tropical upland forests. In addition their complex root networks are known to serve as a buffer against strong waves, high winds and storm, thus protecting degradation of coastal forest ecosystem.
“Mangroves are not only important to fishermen, acting as breeding ground of fish, but they are good carbon absorbers, an important source of income to the beneficiary communities” says Samuel Nguiffo.
Mangroves make up less than 1% of tropical forests worldwide but are crucial in the fight against climate change because they are more effective than most other forests at absorbing and storing planet-heating carbon.
Environment experts salute the involvement of local communities in mangrove restoration efforts as they stand a better chance of protecting their resources.
“When local communities take ownership of the restoration programme they jealously protect and guard the forest against intrusion from outsiders, says Cecil Ndjebet, member of the African Forest Forum, AFF, governing council.
Globally, mangroves are estimated to be declining at a rate of about one- to two percent per year with human activities contributing to an estimated 2.7 million hectares of lost forests every year on the African continent, Ndjebet says, calling on women to add their voices against any unsustainable exploitation.
“Women across the continent should add their voice to say no to wanton mangrove forest destruction,” Ndjebet said.
VIHIGA, Kenya (PAMACC News) - The Integrated Land and Forest Ecosystem Management project (ILFM) was implemented in Vihiga, Kakamega and Nandi Counties to encourage local smallholder farmers to intensify food production on their farms so that they don’t encroach on Kakamega and Nandi Forests.
The project, which was implemented through support from AGRA and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO) among other partners saw farmers adopt farming of African Leafy Vegetables, use good agronomic practices on their farms, and plant agroforestry trees as a way of protecting the forest biodiversity.
And now, given the huge success of the project, where hundreds of households are now into growing of the African leafy vegetables, Vihiga County Governor, H. E Dr Wilbur Ottichilo has intensified the campaign to ensure that the county becomes the net producer and exporter of the vegetables to major urban areas and to other counties across the country.
In an exclusive interview with PAMACC News the governor said that in the past three decades, Vihiga County was known to be a place for a variety of indigenous vegetables. But this glory was almost getting lost, and he is determined to revive vegetable farming among smallholders in the County.
Why is the County Government of Vihiga keen on promoting farming of African Leafy Vegetables above other crops?
A. Promoting of the African leafy vegetables is one of our flagship projects in Vihiga County, and we are working in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and Social Services because if you get into history, the people of Vihiga are known as some of the farmers with diverse varieties of indigenous leafy vegetables for several years. Our people are known to eat all types of vegetables including those that are considered as shrubs or weeds among other communities.
If you go back in recent history, when the commuter train used to used to pass through Luanda, our biggest export to Nairobi was traditional vegetables. Personally, I was educated though farming of these vegetables. Every Monday, my mother travelled to Nairobi, and upon arrival, buyers were always waiting at the train station. So she sold them upon arrival, then waited for the return train later in the day.
Where did this glory disappear to?
In the 80s and early 90s, modernisation came in, and people started changing their diets to grow and eat exotic vegetables such as kales and cabbages which are easier to prepare, while others turned to meaty diets. In my youthful days, we ate meat only during Christmas and chicken only when a very important visitor appeared. Otherwise we ate indigenous vegetables all year round.
As a result of modernisation, vegetables such as indelema (vine spinach), omurele (jute mallow), emiro emilulu (bitter flavoured slender leaf) among others started losing popularity. But the truth is that those elderly people who kept eating such vegetables remained very strong with very long life expectancy.
How can the county reclaim the lost glory?
The 2017 manifesto for this county recognises the African leafy vegetables as one of the most important crops, and it is something that must be promoted. This is because it has now come to pass that we need to go back to such vegetables. What we thought was a rich and modern lifestyle has turned out to be a major health hazard. People who fancy meaty diets have developed so many health complications.
As a result, there is a reversal of the equation all over the country. Just recently, people thought that eating traditional vegetables was for the poor. But today, those who eat the African leafy vegetables are perceived as healthier people who care about their diets. It has suddenly become a fashion for people to eat vegetables especially in urban areas.
Consequently, the demand for the indigenous vegetables has gone very high. Even in the supermarkets, the traditional vegetables have a higher demand.
The beauty with these vegetables is that they grow organically without use of any kind of fertilisers, and they are often resistant to common pests and diseases.
How are we going to change the mindset of farmers who are always keen on growing maize and beans?
The culture of maize and beans in this county is something I have been fighting against for the past five years. With our small pieces of land, maize farming is not a viable.
Under the World Bank funded project on value addition known as National Agricultural and Rural Inclusive Project (NARIGP), we have been able to start a campaign against maize and beans, encouraging farmers to invest in agri-business. With horticulture, one stands to make more money because most vegetables are ready after just three weeks.
We have also been working with AGRA and KALRO on another project known as Sustainable Land & Forest Management (SLFM), through which we have been promoting the farming of African leafy vegetables.
Through these two projects, we have made tremendous success because hundreds of households have now embraced the traditional vegetables, and are now making much more money than they used to make before.
Do you know how many tons of indigenous vegetables are produced as a result of these campaigns?
One thing I know is that the production has increased many folds. But at the moment, we do not have a structured formal system that we can use to document our production.
So far, we are asking the farmers to register with cooperatives. Through these, we will be able to start formalising our vegetable business.
From your knowledge, how much can one make from growing indigenous vegetables on one acre piece of land compared to maize?
The difference is huge. Take for example, common cowpea, which matures in less than 30 days and can be harvested for three months before replanting, you will not make less than Sh100 thousands, to be on the conservative side. This can be repeated three times a year, which translates to Sh300 thousands.
But with maize, grown using several farm inputs, you will probably harvest 10 bags, with a gross income of Sh50 thousands, going with the prevailing market prices. This can only be done once in a year.
What is your message to smallholder farmers in Vihiga County.
What I can tell my people is that in this county, maize farming is unsustainable, the soils are tired, and that the best thing is to completely switch to high value crops that can earn better income, and then they can buy maize from the market.
Times have changed, and we must move with time. The error for subsistence agriculture is gone, and what we are advocating for is agribusiness through high value horticulture.
Charm El-Cheikh/PAMACC: On savait tout du Nil.
Ce fleuve africain apporte aux égyptiens tout ce dont ils ont besoin : de l’eau en abondance, le poisson et le gibier, le papyrus des marécages et bien sûr un sol fertile.
Avec, à peu près, les mêmes potentialités, l’idée que la vallée de l’Ouémé au Bénin vient en seconde position après le Nil est régulièrement soulignée. Aux populations des quatre communes qu’elle couvre, à savoir : Bonou, Adjohoun, Aguégués, Dangbo, la Vallée de l’Ouémé apporte aussi, gît, gibier et couvert et aurait pu faire plus, si les efforts qui sont consentis pour son exploitation ne sont pas souvent limités ou confrontés à d’autres aléas.
Quoi de plus normal alors, qu’une conférence sur le climat, notamment la COP27, qui se tient en Egypte, dans un pays qui abrite le Nil, ne puisse pas susciter les envies des différents maires de ces communes en vue d’aller voir de leurs yeux l’exploitation qui est faite du Nil ? L’enjeu, il est de taille et est en train de se réaliser grâce à Eric Houdo dont efforts pour le développement de sa vallée n’est plus à démontrer.
Thierry Tolégbé, maire de Bonou, François Zannou-Agbo, maire d’Adjohoun, Maoudo Dossou, maire de Dangbo et Marc Gandonou, maire des Aguégués sont depuis quelques jours à Charm El Cheihk, où se tiennent les travaux de la vingt septième conférence sur le climat.
Mais en attendant, qu’ils se rendent dans le bassin du Nil, inscrit à l’agenda de leur voyage, les maires de ces quatre communes de la Vallée de l’Ouémé participent à quelques évènements.
Celui de ce jour samedi 12 novembre 2022 au Africa Pavillon, et auquel ces maires ont pris part, est organisé par la BAD, la Banque Africaine de développement. Il a pour thème : Mobiliser des financements innovants pour construire des systèmes alimentaires résilients et durables sur le continent africain.
L’enjeu de l’évènement
Il s’agit pour la Banque Africaine de Développement, et surtout de son Président, le Dr Akinwumi Adesina, d’attirer l’attention, à l’occasion de cet évènement de haut niveau sur l’adaptation et l’agriculture à la COP27, sur les chocs répétés subis par l’agriculture, ces dernières années sur le continent africain.
Le Dr Adesina en cite trois : « En raison des perturbations de la pandémie de COVID19 et des sècheresses dues aux changements climatiques et puis la guerre en Ukraine, soixante-dix (70) millions d’africains pourraient s’ajouter aux quarante-six (46) millions d’affamés ».
La raison, selon le Président de la BAD, je cite : « De nombreux pays africains dépendent de l’Ukraine et de la Russie pour le blé, le maïs, l’huile de tournesol et l’orge ». Il faut donc renverser la tendance.
« En réponse à cette crise, la Banque Africaine de Développement (BAD) a créé la facilité africaine de production alimentaire d’urgence (AEFPF) pour atténuer les pénuries de nourriture et d’intrants », a indiqué Adesina, au cours de son intervention.
Il faut souligner que l’AEFPF est basée sur le programme phare de Feed Africa, Technologies pour la Transformation de l’Agriculture Africaine (TAAT) qui a permis de fournir des variétés de blé tolérantes à la chaleur, des variétés de maïs tolérantes à la sècheresse et des variétés de riz à haut rendement à onze (11) millions d’agriculteurs au cours des trois dernières années.
Il s’agit, à terme de rendre résilients les systèmes de production en Afrique en vue d’éviter les différents chocs qui viennent le fragiliser.
La finalité de l’évènement
En réunissant autour de lui, plusieurs ministres africains de l’agriculture, notamment, Owosu Afriyie Akoto du Ghana, Ali Ngouille Ndiaye du Sénégal, Abu Karim de la Sierra Leone, Josefa Sacko, le Commissaire pour l’agriculture et au développement rural et puis Anne Beathe Tvinnereim, Ministre du développement International de la Norvège, Adésina, avait à cœur d’envoyer un message fort à la COP27, « le continent africain a besoin de financements supplémentaires pour l’adaptation immédiate à long terme de son agriculture en vue de faire face aux changements climatiques et aux effets de la guerre en Ukraine. »
Il est compris, dès lors, tout le sens du combat de la société civile africaine, principalement, celui de l’Alliance Panafricaine pour la Justice Climatique (PACJA) pour la mise en œuvre à la COP27, du mécanisme de Varsovie sur les pertes et dommages.
C’est une bonne piste pour faire rentrer de l’argent sur le continent, qui sans doute sera orienté vers l’adaptation de son agriculture. C’est, donc, avec beaucoup d’intérêts et de sérieux que les quatre maires de la vallée de l’Ouémé ont suivi ces différents échanges.
Leur rencontre, quoique brève, avec le Président de la BAD, le Docteur Adesina Akinwumi, ont renforcé leurs engagements vis-à-vis de leurs terroirs. Verbatim : « Nous sommes heureux d’avoir rencontré le Président de la BAD et d’avoir eu l’assurance que le Projet d’Appui aux investissements agricoles de la vallée (PAIA-VO) sera renforcé.
Il s’agit, aujourd’hui, de faire en sorte que le Nil et la vallée de l’Ouémé permettent au continent africain d’être autosuffisant », Thiérry Tolégbé, maire de Bonou.
« Dans la vallée de l’Ouémé, il y a des terres qui n’ont jamais reçues un coup de pioche. Il nous faut divers projets de développement pour nous permettre de nourrir les populations de nos contrées. Merci à la BAD et à son Président pour tout ce qu’ils font déjà », François Zannou Agbo, maire d’Adjohoun.
« L’agriculture assure l’alimentation. Et comme l’a dit le Président de la BAD, il nous faut désormais transformer nos produits. Le Nil et la vallée de l’Ouémé ont ce potentiel. On peut avoir du pain à base de manioc et ne pas toujours attendre le blé », Maoudo Djossou, maire de Dangbo.
« Pour assurer l’autosuffisance alimentaire, Je vois jusqu’à quel niveau le financement de l’agriculture est très important. On a eu l’occasion de discuter avec le Président de la BAD, que je remercie pour tout ce qu’il faisait déjà et pour ce qu’il fera surtout pour appuyer les pouvoirs locaux », Marc Gandonou, maire d’Aguégués.
Ainsi, les maires de la vallée de l’Ouémé à la COP27, l’opportunité est unique. Il s’agit de voir et d’apprendre. Il s’agit de faire en sorte que ça ne soit qu’une simple balade et que les retombées soient à la taille de l’enjeu que constitue le développement des communes de la Vallée.
Sharm El-Sheik/PAMACC: Summary: The initiative unlocks an additional $15 billion investment announced for Nexus of Food, Water & Energy. It will fund the implementation of one main energy project (USD 10 billion), five food security and agriculture projects, and three irrigation and water projects.
The first fruits of a relentless push by the African Civil Society groups for the World to pay up the much-needed Climate Adaptation Finance required by vulnerable countries in the continent is finally beginning to trickle slowly in “small dollar bills”.
The COP27 President, H.E. Sameh Shoukry and US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry, announced the initiative to accelerate adaptation in the African continent to save millions of lives and livelihoods.
The package worth $150 Billion was announced at a special session on "Advancing Adaptation Action in Africa" co-hosted by H.E. Sameh Shoukry, COP27 President, and the United States Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry.
COP President Shoukry speaking at the events, said: “The key challenge for African countries is to access funding for climate action. Recognizing that progress towards adapting to climate consequences and enhancing resilience is crucially needed, we launched here at COP27 the Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda a couple of days ago.”
This agenda comprises a total of 30 global adaptation outcome targets by 2030 that are urgently needed to address the adaptation gap and increase the resilience of 4 billion people through accelerating transformation across five impact systems: food and agriculture, water and nature, coastal and oceans, human settlements, and infrastructure.
COP27 President H.E, Shoukry further said, “Egypt, as COP27 President and as an African nation, is well aware of the adaptation challenges facing our continent, and we are pleased to have collaborated over the past year with the United States to develop a diverse package of support for Africa in the field of adaptation and resilience.”
The Adaptation in Africa initiative, previously announced in June 2022 by President Biden and President El-Sisi, has the potential to result in USD 4-10 benefits for every dollar invested. It now includes support from the US for $13.6 million for a Systematic Observations Financing Facility that will help fill weather, water, and climate observation gaps in Africa.
$15 million to support the co-development and deployment of early-warning systems in Africa to cut the number of people who need emergency assistance in half by 2030 - and from 200 million to just 10 million by 2050.
Another $10 million to support the capacity building of Africa’s current and future decision-makers. This includes $10 million to support the launch of a new adaptation centre in Egypt – the Cairo Center for Learning and Excellence on Adaptation and Resilience, announced by Egypt, to build adaptation capacity across Africa.
There is also $2 million to the Resilience and Adaptation Mainstreaming Program to build the capacity of governments to manage climate risks and access finance. Meanwhile, $3.5 million in support for the Least Developed Countries Initiative for Effective Adaptation & Resilience will help African countries like Uganda, Malawi, Gambia, and Burkina Faso to enhance access to adaptation finance for the most vulnerable.
Expanding access to risk-based insurance for the most vulnerable by supporting regional risk insurance pools, including contributing $12 million to the Africa Disaster Risk Financing Program and $12 million to ARC Ltd.
$25 million to the African Union’s flagship Africa Adaptation Initiative (AAI), which is hosted by the Egyptian government, to launch the AAI Food Security Accelerator, which will dramatically speed- up and scale up private sector investments in climate-resilient food security in Africa.
Encouraging private sector innovation through $3.8 million to CRAFT TA Facility and $2 million to launch an adaptation window of the Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance to help develop new financial instruments and mechanisms to harness private investment in adaptation.
Special Envoy Kerry said: “We are completely committed to working together with our partners to support vulnerable communities in their efforts to, sadly, have to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Something that everyone, whether in developed, developing or emerging economies are impacted by.”
Earlier this week, in a statement released via the US Embassy in Cairo, Kerry stated that “unprecedented” investment in clean energy is needed to limit warming to 1.5°C and avert catastrophic climate impacts on communities worldwide. His statement added that “annual clean energy investment must triple to $4.2 trillion by 2030”, with over half of that investment needed for emerging and developing economies.
Early on Wednesday of the first weeks of COP27 talks, China said it would not pay a single small dollar bill into the climate loss and damage fund for developing nations after small island nations pinned it for responsibility as a high carbon emitter at the U.N. Climate Change Conference in Egypt.
That was the first time developing nations like China and India were added to the list of countries financially accountable for higher global carbon emissions.
In response, Chinese climate envoy Xie Zhenhua said, “Beijing would support such a mechanism for the payment of loss and damage, but would not pay cash into the loss and damage fund,” adding that his nation “is not obliged to contribute.”
Developing nations are seeking such funds from developed countries as reparations for economic and non-economic losses they have suffered under the speeding wrath of climate change.
The Pan African Media Alliance on Climate Change (PAMACC) has learned that there is a legal burden to prove for developing nations to derive reparations for Climate loss and damage with pinpoint evidence that economic loss or damage suffered was a direct result of pollution or emission event in that particular developed country.
This makes it a tall order for developing nations to hold developed nations to account for loss and damages as well as human rights violations occasioned by weather disasters in their nations.