NAIROBI, Kenya (PAMACC News) - Research scientists, government and nongovernmental organisations’ representatives, entrepreneurs and pastoralists from Kenya, Senegal and Burkina Faso met in Nairobi on 12, November 2018 to share knowledge and experiences so as to strengthen the resilience of livestock systems in the future.
“The livestock sector in Africa, especially the extensive livestock, has for a long time been mystified on its contribution to crucial sectors such as the economy,” said Kamau Kuria, the Chief Executive Officer for Kenya Markets Trust (KMT).
The Regional Dialogue for Livestock Value Chain Transformation was organised by KMT in collaboration with International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) to support the resilience of extensive livestock production systems in semi-arid areas south of the Sahara, particularly in the Sahelian regions and in the Horn of Africa.
The dialogue was based on latest research findings from different studies in Kenya and Senegal under the Pathways to Resilience In Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) project, which indicated that private sector actors along livestock value chains are diverse, ranging from private individuals to entrepreneurs to small-medium enterprises and larger actors.
“Studies have been done and evidences have been gathered from several arenas on the livestock value chain. It is now time to focus and relate that to actions that can show transformative results,” said Kuria.
Abdikarim Daud of KMT observed that in the meat value chain, there is disconnect between pastoralists who are the producers, with the meat industry. “There is need for the meat industry to drive the production,” he said, observing that the industry so far depends on brokers.
“Brokers can only choose the best animal, without telling the producers what the market demand is. But if the industry was to deal with the producers, then it will be possible for the producers to know what to do so as to satisfy the market demand,” said Daud.
Dr Stephen Moiko, one of the PRISE researchers concurred with Daud, saying that pastoralists usually produce for the market, but they do not understand the market. “Pastoralists do not sell the best. Instead they sell weaker animals to get money to solve immediate social needs,” he told the delegates.
Dr James Gakuo, an entrepreneur who buys severely emaciated animals to fatten them through an intensive feeding programme said that most pastoralists keep to their animals to a point of death especially during severe droughts. “We have now created a market for emaciated animals, and therefore pastoralists should not wait until their animals die,” he said.
He urged governments, NGOs and the private sector to invest in the fattening programmes for value addition as a way of helping pastoralists adapt to climate change.
“It is a pity when governments and NGOs decide to slaughter emaciated animals so as to give the meat to the poor as food aid,” said Gakuo. “Here is a scenario where drought is already killing animals, and the government and NGOs are also killing more animals. Are we not going to decimate all the animals, which are the lifeline for the pastoralists?” he paused.
If the same animals that are killed by governments and NGOs were to be fattened through an intensive feeding programme, they would fetch more income for the pastoralists and provide high quality meat for the market according to Gakuo.
The entrepreneur uses oil cakes from sunflower, cotton and barley to make the animal feed rations. “If the government invested in fattening programmes, then people from non-arid regions can take the advantage and start growing raw material crops such as sunflowers and cotton as an alternative source of income,” he said.
Livestock insurance was also found to be another relevant tool that can help pastoralists adapt to climate change.
According to a 2012 policy brief by the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), a livestock revolution is taking place around the Horn of Africa - with US$1 billion trade in livestock and livestock products, plus associated economic activities – transport, marketing, financing and processing.
In Kenya, the livestock sub-sector contributes 14 percent to the Gross Domestic Product.
“Pastoralists need affordable insurance cover to cushion them from the effects of climate change,” said Hassan Bashir, the Group Chief Executive for Takaful Insurance of Africa (TIA).
In collaboration with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), TIA formed an innovative policy to cushion pastoralists and is now operational in eight counties in Kenya.
ILRI’s Index-Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) project has been in partnership with TIA since 2013, when they introduced, for the first time in Africa, an Index-Based Livestock Takaful (IBLT) policy, which combines an Islamic-compliant financial instrument with innovative use of satellite imagery to determine forage availability.
“It is a perfect product whose payments are done through M-pesa, and the product is available in designated retail shops in the villages,” said Bashir.
Dr. Assane Beye, a research scientist from Senegal said that such a policy is a good innovation that should be introduced in West Africa.
Dr Mary Mbole-Kariuki from the African Union - Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) pointed out that Africa’s future is in the indigenous breeds.
“AU is in the process of setting up five gene banks for indigenous breed, from where governments and scientists can collect semen to ensure that our indigenous breeds remain afloat,” she said.
The delegates further talked about the importance of controlling pests and diseases, the need for pastoralists to work in organised groups, the different ways of rangeland degeneration and the need for governments to put research findings into action through policy implementation among other issues.
The Nairobi Dialogue was building on the first Regional Dialogue meeting held at the PCGC conference that discussed ‘Pastoralism in current global changes: stakes challenges and prospects’ held between 20 and 24th November 2017 in Dakar, Senegal.
YAOUNDE, Cameroon (PAMACC News) - African Forest Forum, a pan-African Non-Governmental Organisation, is leading the way in empowering stakeholders in the forestry sector to develop strategies for sustainable forest management and the fight against climate change.
The organisation says sustainable forest management in Africa is imperative to mitigate the effects of climate change. But the capacities of professional and technical stakeholders in African forestry sector have to be strengthened to permit for better forest management.
It is against this backdrop that a four day training workshop under the theme ‘ ModellingClimate and Applications to the Forestry Sector, is taking place from 9-13 April 2018 in Osun State University, Nigeria.
The workshop that brings over 70participants from 17 African countries according to Godwin Kowero, the Executive Secretary of AFF, is part the organisation’s strategic plan being put in place acrossAfrican countries to douce the effects of environmental degradation and climate change.
« We are committed to work with the different stakholders to better drive efforts towards sustainable forest management, » Kowero said at the opening of the workshop Monday 9th April.
Climate change currently affecting the African environment he noted, remains a serious threat to human lives, hence the urgency for sustainable forest management in Africa. AFF was therefore committed to drive sustainable management and forest conservation pathways to better improve the socio-economic well-being of people in the African continent, he said.
The forum he revealed was working closely with the UN and ECOWAS to address the issue of deforestation, in Africa.
According AFF, Africa requires strengthening professionalism and work ethic in the forestry sector in order to better manage and use African forest and trees resources sustainably. And this also applies to how the continent handles climate change issues.
In this regard the “Strengthening sustainable forest management in Africa project” recognizes the important role Professional Forestry Associations (PFAs) play in promoting forest governance, professionalism in the forest sector and ensuring a high level of competence, independence and integrity in the profession. These are all critical to sustainable forest management in Africa, a note from African Forestry Forum said.
The workshop training objectives is focused on facilitating mobilization of forestry and related stakeholders in ECOWAS countries to address issues more professionally and in a harmonized manner.
Participants accordingly are drilled on the basic concepts and principles of modelling climate; climate models used in different sectors (agriculture, terrestrial/vegetation systems, water resources, coastal systems, and soils),information requirements for climate models used in the different sectors, how to use the models to predict climate impacts in different sectors, and with emphasis on forestry, among others.
Moussa Leko, ECOWAS representative, also pointed out at the opening of the training session the commitment of his institution to support member-states create a platform for synergy among stakeholders, to sustain forest management globally.
Leko emphasised on the importance of forestry on food security and renewable energy , the life –wire of sustainable development.
He commended the AFF for the initiative thatwill go a long way to enhance forest resource management both at regional and international levels.
In another remark, Grace Titilaoyo the deputy governor of Osun, commended the initiative of the AFF, aimed at improving livelihoods and sustainable management of forest resources on the African continent. While appreciating the choice of Osun state to host the workshop, she assured that the administration was committed to the issue of afforestation and tree planting, to fight the ravaging effects of climate change.
AFF accordingly is engaged in the development and implementation of a number of forestry and related projects and activities in close collaboration with a wide range of stakeholders. One area of concern has been the link between forests, climate change and the people who depend on forest resources in Africa.
Des maisons construites qui tiennent compte des matériaux adaptés à l’écosystème, à l’ensoleillement, à la pluviométrie et à la ventilation… Il y a longtemps que la chose est devenue rare sous nos cieux. Il n’est plus tenu rigueur à l’orientation, parce qu’on sait, de toutes les façons, que pour le confort et contre la chaleur, on peut faire usage du climatiseur ou du ventilateur. Les maisons, surtout celles des agglomérations urbaines sont donc illustrées par l’utilisation du ciment et de la tôle ondulée. Une telle maison, dans un contexte de changement climatique, risque de ne pas être confortable. L’Association de la Voûte Nubienne propose une technique qui prend en compte le climat et ses conséquences.
Didier Hubert MADAFIME, Cotonou
Cécilia Rinaudo, la Directrice Adjointe de l’Association de la VoûteNubienne était à la COP 23 qui a eu lieu à Bonn en Allemagne du 6au 17 novembre 2017. Accompagnée de la responsable du développement de ladite Association Amarys Preuss, elle était allée faire la promotion de la Voûte Nubienne. L’endroit était idéal parce qu’il était question des changements climatiques et surtout de ses menaces. Et au-delà des autres secteurs, le bâtiment est aussi celui qui sera davantage touché par le phénomène. Dans ce contexte précis d’économies menacées par des dépenses excessives en énergie, écrit Djossê Léobard Houénou, dans son ouvrage « Design7 : Architecture africaine, de la tradition à la modernité », il devient nécessaire d’imaginer des solutions innovantes qui prennent en compte nos réalités climatiques.
De quoi s’agit-il en fait ?
La Voûte Nubienne est une technique de construction ancestrale originaire de Nubie, au Sud de l’Egypte et du Nord du Soudan, inconnue en Afrique de l’Ouest, qui n’utilise ni le bois, devenu rare, ni la tôle, chère et inconfortable. Réalisée principalement en terre crue, matériau largement disponible, la Voûte Nubienne est une solution d’habitat adaptée, qui évite l’utilisation des ressources ligneuses, répondant aux usages privés et communautaires, en milieu rural comme en ville. C’est ce que propose l’Association la Voûte Nubienne pour plusieurs pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest à savoir : le Burkina-Faso, le Mali, le Sénégal et le Bénin. Il est tout à fait adapté au climat du Bénin surtout au nord, souligne Cécilia Rinaudo. « Là, on est sur un climat sec où il va faire très chaud, renchérit Madame Rinaudo qui estime que c’est une technique de construction entièrement en terre crue qui permet la réalisation de bâtiment durable, écologique ». On ne va pas utiliser du bois, de la tôle ni du ciment.
Une innovation en matière de construction
La seule chose utilisée ici, ce sont des briques en terre crue séchée au soleil pour le mur et la toiture. La propriété de la terre va donner une qualité thermique très importante, une énergie passive très importante. « Quand il va faire chaud ou froid à l’extérieur constate la Directrice Adjointe de l’Association la Voûte Nubienne, le bâtiment va être très confortable. C’est très important dans le contexte des changements climatiques. Encore plus important également avec l’augmentation des évènements climatiques violents, des vents de plus en plus violents ». De plus, le bâtiment de la Voûte Nubienne va être aussi résistant aux pluies. Donc, c’est tout à fait adapté au climat. L’innovation, c’est la toiture voûtée, d’où le nom de la Voûte Nubienne. Elle est réalisée sans coffrages et permet aux populations d’avoir accès à un habitat bas carbone, bioclimatique, durable, confortable, écologique et économique.Il s’agit pour la Directrice du développement, d’une solution très simple qui répond à des enjeux contemporains nouveaux dans un contexte des changements climatiques. Sans changer fondamentalement ce que faisaient nos grands-parents, il s’agit de répondre à un changement, à une réalité nouvelle permettant un développement économique fort dans les communautés et pour les populations elles-mêmes.
Une pratique partagée par les béninois
Henri Totin, Ingénieur des projets et management de qualité, spécialiste des questions d’économie verte- Président-Fondateur de JEVEV ONG, salue l’initiative de la Voûte Nubienne. « Il estime que le développement durable remet en cause les pratiques de construction du siècle dernier, gaspilleuses en énergie et en paysages, coûteuses en maintenance et destructrices de lieu social ». L’accessibilité à un habitat viable, qui favorise la solidarité, qui soit, efficace sur le plan environnemental, économe en ressources et créateur d’esthétique, est un défi pour nos sociétés contemporaines. Dans une émission consacrée à ce sujet sur la Radio Nationale, un citoyen béninois, confirme le confort et le bien-être des maisons en terre crue. « Mes enfants ne sont plus malades depuis que nous sommes retournés au village après avoir été chassé de l’espace quej’occupais à Cotonou sauf que je ne suis pas prêt à passer ma vie au village ».
Au carrefour de l’écologie et d’un urbanisme en crise, les questions les plus complexes et les plus épineuses qui se posent à l’humanité toute entière au cours du siècle à venir est : comment construire un habitat humain en harmonie avec la nature ?
NAIROBI Kenya (PAMACC News) - A team of scientists from the Kenya Markets Trust (KMT) on April 11, 2018 shared all the key research findings of four different thematic studies conducted in Kenya under the Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) project.
“The Kenya government is now focusing on the “Big Four” agenda aimed at improving livelihoods, creating jobs and growing the economy by focusing on critical areas of the economy in the next five years,” noted Kamau Kuria, the head of KMT.
“It is noteworthy that part of the PRISE study, which aimed at strengthening the understanding and knowledge of decision makers on the threats and opportunities that semi-arid economies face in relation to climate change, will go a long way in helping unlock the potential of semi-arid lands in Kenya and thus enhance their contribution to the national agenda,” he told delegates drown from Kenya , Senegal, International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and Overseas Development Institute (ODI) during the event to disseminate key research findings in a Nairobi Hotel.
The study, which was commissioned by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Canada and the UK based Department for International Development (DFID) aims atsupporting climate resilient economic development in partner countries by identifying opportunities for adaptation that are also opportunities for investment by the public and private sectors.
“These findings from Kenya will help change the narrative in semi-arid areas,” said Dr Eva Ludifrom the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) – which is coordinating the PRISE project at a global level.
According to Dr Evans Kitui of IDRC, direct involvement of government officials both at the county and the national level is a pointer towards implementation of policies that will emanate from the four studies. “In the past, research has not been well appreciated. But now, we can see a lot of government participation,” he said.
One of the studies found that in the past 50 years, temperatures have risen in all the 21 semi arid counties in Kenya, with five of them recording an increase of more than 1.5oC increase. They include Turkana (1.8oC), West Pokot, ElgeyoMarakwet (1.91oC), Baringo (1.8oC), Laikipia (1.59oC) and Narok (1.75oC).
This, according to Dr Mohammed Said, one of the lead researchers, has impacted greatly on livestock survival, on one hand presenting a disaster, and on the other hand providing an opportunity that can be exploited
“There were winners and losers,” he told delegates at the forum. “Generally, cattle do not survive the higher temperatures, while at the same time, sheep and goat population increased exponentially,” said Dr Said.
According to the study, whose theme was to harness opportunities for climate-resilient economic development in semi-arid lands and identifying the potential for economic transformation and diversification in semi-arid lands especially in the beef value chain, the overall population of cattle in all the semi arid counties reduced by more than 26% between the year 1977 and 2016.
However, the study also reveals that goats and sheep population increased tremendously by 76% in the same period, with camels’ population increased by 14%. “This shows that goats, sheep and camels enjoyed the higher temperatures while cattle could not survive the stress,” said Dr Said.
“We’ve seen great potential for implementing some of the adaptation options and I call upon the stakeholders gathered here today, to pull together so we can build resilience and open up the ASALs for trade, investments and better livelihoods,” said Kuria of KMT.
In Nyeri County for example, Dr James Gakuo began with buying severely emaciated cattle for fattening at his farm in Kiganjo through intensive system of beef production that focuses on feeding cattle for 90 days on concentrate feeds till they reach the desired weight for the market, thereby creating a market for such animals that would otherwise have died.
In just two years, 14 other farmers have followed into his footsteps, and are in the business of fattening emaciated cattle thus providing more market to pastoralists who are hardly hit by tough climatic conditions.
Another study looked at the land tenure with special focus on Maasai pastoralist community in Kajiado County.
The study found out that 64 percent of the entire Kajiado County is now private land that is not open for grazing.“Though this has provided opportunity because privatisationcan always lead to greater investment opportunities for those who can secure land, it marginalizes the poor and particularly women in the process,” said Dr Stephen Moiko, one of the lead researchers.
According to Dr Eva Ludi of ODI, these findings will be presented at the Talanoa Dialogue in Bonn, Germany come May 2018.
The purpose of Talanoa Dialogue is for parties to share climate change related stories, build empathy and to make wise decisions for the collective good.
According to Dr Said, county governments should also take advantage of the research findings and scenario projections to develop their spatial plans.
“These findings will be important in formulation of new policies and strategies such as the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP 2018-2022), the National Wildlife Conservation and Management Strategy, and the County Development Integrated Plans (CIDPs),” said Joseph Muhwanga, the PRISE project National Coordinator in Kenya.