Sustainable Development

DJA, Cameroon (PAMACC News) - The Dja Conservation Complex in Cameroon globally recognized for its importance in biodiversity is increasingly in danger. Reports by the African Wildlife Foundation says the Dja and its wildlife face an uncertain future with rampant poaching, timber exploitation, the expansion of industries like mining and forestry and a lack of adequate support.

The government says it is hence working in partnership with other stakeholders to reinforce protection of the forest and its surrounding rich resources.

It is against this backdrop that the government, through the Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development (MINEPAT) recently signed a partnership convention with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) to handle environmental aspects of the Integrated Development and Planning Programme of the Dja Mining Loop and the Adjacent Border Area (PADI DJA).

Mining operations are expected to take place in the Dja Faunal Reserve which spans across the South and East Regions, thus protecting the important animal and plant species therein becomes imperative, officials say.

Hanson Njiforti, Director of WWF-Cameroon Country Office Programme who signed for his institution pointed on the need to reduce the human and environmental impact of any development project in the area.

According to Hanson Njiforti the convention will give WWF a legal framework to exercise in protecting the Dja. “We sometimes neglect the impact of some of our activities on the environment. A project carried out without considering the impact on the environment can cost us a lot more,” he said, noting that the convention was a good step in the right direction.

WWF Cameroon is expected to provide its assistance, technical expertise and support to PADI DJA, with the principal objective of ameliorating the living conditions of the affected population. WWF Cameroon will also have the task of promoting good governance in the execution of the project and put in place transparency mechanisms to guarantee proper usage of resources allocated to the project among others.

Blondeau Talatala, Coordinator of PADI DJA said they are handling all concerns in view of the future exploitation of the Mbalam iron ore and other similar mining projects in the area.

The Dja reserve was created in 1950, and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Since 1992, the reserve has been managed by ECOFAC, the European Union’s Central African Forestry Ecosystems programme.

Covering an area of more than 500,000 hectares, the reserve has important populations of chimpanzees, gorillas, elephants and buffalo. It is thought to contain some of the highest levels of biodiversity compared to any other forest in Africa.

But the Dja reserve has also long been the source of conflict with local communities who are angered at their exclusion from the reserve and the imposition of strict anti-hunting bans.

ACCRA, Ghana (PAMACC News) - As climate change threatens agriculture, food security and water resource, the Ghana chapter of EBAFOSA will launch the National Day of Resilience on March 1 to take stock and showcase progress made in sustainably industrializing Ghana’s food systems.

EBAFOSA – Ecosystem Based Adaptation for Food Security Assembly – is poised to serve as a platform to foster collaboration in combating food insecurity, climate change, ecosystems degradation and poverty in the country.

Food systems serve as the engine and strategic thrust for accelerating the achievement of Ghana’s socioeconomic priorities, creating wealth opportunities for enhanced incomes and jobs.

The resilience day will look at meeting Ghana’s climate resilience goals as captured in the country’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

“Ghana is on track to build green and sustainable Economy,” said Dr. John Boateng, President of EBAFOSA–Ghana. “Everybody else, governmental, non-governmental, youth groups and the private sector and corporate world are all doing their part. We need to have a big plan though as a nation that coordinates and synchronizes all efforts into an impactful action. There must be a strategy in place to monitor and evaluate progress we make and correct wrong decisions”.

EBAFOSA is an all-inclusive pan-African policy framework which uses innovative approaches that decentralize the development and application of policy solutions in order to achieve participation of key stakeholders.

The National Day of Resilience will bring together agriculture and food security practitioners and stakeholders from the government and public sectors, educational and research institutions, non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations, and civil society and faith-based organizations.

Under the theme “Making Africa Work through EBAFOSA and Power of Innovative Volunteerism”, stakeholders will leverage on the Day to achieve the end goal of wealth creation and climate resilience building.

According to Dr. Boateng, the young people are being targeted to take the lead in transformative solutions to drive the agro-industrialisation efforts of EBAFOSA Ghana and to accelerate Africa's progress.

“The youth need to be engaged to lead in creating the income opportunities that they need. It is for this reason that in the practice of Innovative Volunteerism, youth, who are the majority, should likewise be intrinsically engaged, to lead actions. Their energy and innovativeness should be leveraged,” he said.

Interest groups and individuals are expected to collaborate in developing and implementing policy solutions to upscale ecosystem-based adaptation-driven agriculture and its value chain improvements toward ensuring sustainable inclusive growth in Ghana.

KIGANJO, Kenya (PAMACC News) - On a private paddock in Kiganjo, along Thika-Nanyuki highway, Dr James Gakuo is busy de-worming a herd of 100 cattle he just purchased from Isiolo County. The animals are extremely emaciated, almost at the verge of death.  

In another shed just a few meters away, a herd of 150 well built cattle is feeding on a special floor-like organic ration locally prepared using grain by-products and oil crops such as barley, sunflower and cotton seed-cake that Gakuo grinds and blends at his feed production factory in Kiganjo.  

“These animals at one point were skinny like the others. I brought them from Northern Kenya while they were emaciated and fed them and look at them now, they are ready for the market,” says Gakuo, a veterinary expert. He is in the business of adding value to such emaciated animals, before releasing them to the market.

And now, after a long research, a new study by scientists drowns from different parts of the world recommends that county governments in semi arid lands in Kenya should customize followGakuo’s example as one way of developing climate-resilient economies through vertical and horizontal transformation in the beef value chain.

According to Dr Stephen Moiko, the lead researcher for a study on ‘Livestock Production and Value Chains: Adaptation under Climate & Land Tenure Changes,’ One of the ways of building resilience is by investing in projects that improve the quality of beef along the value chain.
“This can be done by fattening the animals at producer level, and also by having improved marketing at processor level, and as well by researching and developing of alternative feed sources and breeds,” said Moiko.

Gakuo’s enterprise also shows that there are adaptation options for business and private sector investment opportunities in responding to climate change.

The PRISE study, jointly funded by the Canada based International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the UK based Department for International development (DFID) and implemented in Kenya by the Kenya Markets Trust (KMT) also calls for diversification of pastoralist livelihoods through tourism, as a sector that complements and supports the livestock sector.

According to Moiko, livestock traders and businessmen respondents during the research pointed out that good quality meat was not easy to find in the market, given the prevailing tough climatic conditions. As a result, end consumers are now opting for white meat instead.

However, Gakuo has proven that apart from taking the animals to ranches for fattening, it is possible to improve the quality of the meat using short-term intensive fattening system for better profits.

“If we had fattening programs in all the pastoralist counties, then it would be easier for individuals to pay some fee for fattening animals whenever drought strikes. Once an animal is fit enough, it will automatically fetch better prices from meat processors who are always out to get good quality products for the end consumer,” said Dr Gakuo.

The study, which is part of the Pathways to Resilience in Semi-arid Economies (PRISE) further calls for hHolistic planning of pasture management in the group ranches and private ranches to support production, and effective methods of delivering climate risk information in good time.
“There is also need for county government to raise awareness campaigns on the potential climate change adaptation measures and opportunities for investment,” said Moiko.


La consommation énergétique de l’Afrique est plus faible que celle de tous les autres continents et la consommation par habitant n'a pratiquement pas changé depuis l’an 2000 comme l’indique l’Atlas des Ressources en Energie de l’Afrique, un rapport publié conjointement par l'ONU Environnement et la Banque Africaine de Développement.

La production énergétique actuelle en Afrique ne répond pas à la demande du marché. Environ un tiers de la population africaine n'a toujours pas accès à l'électricité et 53% de la population dépend de la biomasse pour la cuisine, le chauffage et le séchage. L’énergie nécessaire à deux utilisations d’une bouilloire électrique par une famille britannique correspond à plus de cinq fois l'électricité consommée par un Malien en une année.

Préparé en collaboration avec l’Environment Pulse Institute, le United States Geological Survey et l'Université George Mason, l'Atlas consolide les informations disponibles sur le paysage énergétique en Afrique.

Au cœur du développement d’infrastructures énergétiques

Il fournit ces informations sous forme d'images, de cartes, et d'autres données satellitaires sur les 54 pays africains à travers des visuels détaillant les défis et les opportunités de fournir à la population des services énergétiques fiables, abordables et modernes.

« L'Atlas démontre que l’investissement dans des infrastructures d'énergie verte peut soutenir le développement économique de l'Afrique et favoriser la réalisation des Objectifs de Développement Durable. Il s'agit donc d'un guide important pour les gouvernements africains qui s’évertuent à catalyser leur développement national en utilisant leurs ressources énergétiques propres », a déclaré Juliette Biao Koudenoukpo, Directrice Régionale et
Représentante pour l’Afrique de l'ONU Environnement.

L'Atlas met en avant à la fois le potentiel et la fragilité des ressources énergétiques de l’Afrique qui sont au cœur du développement socio-économique du continent. Il met en lumière quelques exemples de réussite en matière de développement du secteur de l'énergie durable sur le continent, mais aussi les principaux défis environnementaux associés au développement d’infrastructures énergétiques.

L'Atlas aborde les échecs ainsi que les bonnes pratiques de la gestion des déchets dangereux et de la pollution associée aux explorations pétrolières et gazières dans divers pays africains. Il propose également des recommandations sur les opportunités à saisir grâce à l'implication du secteur privé et à la mise en place de partenariats dans le domaine la gestion durable des déchets du secteur de l'énergie.

Un aperçu complet des ressources énergétiques

« L'Atlas fournit un aperçu complet des ressources énergétiques de l'Afrique. Un accent particulier est mis sur les défis liés aux changements climatiques et à la pollution, notamment la pollution atmosphérique, qui entravent la réalisation des ODD », selon Amadou Hott, Vice-Président chargé de l’électricité, de l'énergie, du climat et de la croissance verte à la Banque Africaine de Développement.

Les réserves de charbon, de gaz naturel et de pétrole représentent respectivement 3,6%, 7,5% et 7,6% des réserves mondiales. Une population croissante, une industrialisation soutenue et une urbanisation grandissante signifient une augmentation de la demande en énergie en Afrique.
Seule une fraction minime du potentiel énergétique existant est actuellement exploitée causant un énorme retard du continent dans le secteur de l’industrie en raison d'un accès limité et peu fiable à l'énergie.

Conclusions et préoccupations relevées

Les Principales conclusions et préoccupations relevées par l'Atlas indiquent que la consommation énergétique par habitant en Afrique est la plus faible au monde : bien qu’elle compte 16% de la population mondiale (1,18 milliard de personnes sur 7,35 milliards), la consommation énergétique s’élève à environ 3,3% de l'énergie primaire sur le plan mondial; au rythme actuel, l'Afrique n’atteindra pas l’objectif de l’accès à l’énergie pour tous avant 2080; et de toutes les sources d'énergie existantes, l'Afrique consomme principalement du pétrole (42% de sa consommation totale d'énergie), suivi du gaz (28%), du charbon (22%), de l'hydroélectricité (6%), des énergies renouvelables (1%) et du nucléaire (1%).

Les autres conclusions et préoccupations sont que l'Afrique du Sud est le septième plus grand producteur de charbon au monde et représente 94 % de la production de charbon en Afrique; les ressources énergétiques renouvelables de l'Afrique sont diverses, inégalement réparties et en quantité énormes : son potentiel solaire est quasi illimité (10 TW), l’hydroélectricité est abondante (350 GW), sans oublier l’énergie éolienne (110 GW) et les sources d'énergie géothermique (15 GW); près de 60% des réfrigérateurs utilisés dans les centres de santé en Afrique ne bénéficient pas d’une alimentation en électricité fiable, compromettant le stockage des vaccins et des médicaments : la moitié des vaccins sont perdus en raison du manque de réfrigération; et l'énergie issue de la biomasse représente plus de 30 % de l'énergie consommée en Afrique et plus de 80 % dans de nombreux pays d'Afrique subsaharienne. La pollution intérieure due à la cuisson utilisant la biomasse - une tâche généralement accomplie par les femmes - fera bientôt plus de victimes que le paludisme et le VIH / SIDA réunis.

L'Atlas a également souligné que les ressources énergétique de l'Afrique subsaharienne non découvertes mais techniquement accessibles sont estimées à environ 115,34 milliards de barils de pétrole et 21,05 billions de mètres cubes de gaz; et les femmes souffrent davantage de la pauvreté énergétique que les hommes.

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